In European nations, marriage was traditionally considered a civil institution. Around 5AD great Christian theologians such as Augustine wrote about marriage and the Christian Church started taking an interest in the ceremony. It was at this point that Christians began to have their marriages conducted by ministers in Christian gatherings, but it was in the 12th century that the Roman Catholic Church formally defined marriage as a sacrament, sanctioned by God. In Catholicism, it is still believed that the Sacrament of Matrimony is between God, the man and the woman, while the Reformation of the Sixteenth Century CE re-valued marriage as a merely life-long and monogamous covenant between a man and a woman.
During the Victorian era romantic love became viewed as the primary requirement for marriage and the rituals of courting became even more formal.
An interested gentleman could not simply walk up to a young lady and begin a conversation. He had to be formally introduced and only after some time was considered appropriate for a man to speak to a lady or for a couple to be seen together.
Once formally introduced, if a gentleman wished to escort a lady home from a social function he would present his card to her and at the end of the evening the lady would review her options and chose who would be her escort! She would then notify the lucky gentleman by giving him her own card requesting that he escort her home.
Almost all courting took place in the girl's home, always under the eye of watchful parents. If the courting progressed, the couple might advance to the front porch. These cities housed about 40, people who enjoyed quite a high standard of living with sophisticated water systems; most houses having drainage systems, wells, and rubbish chutes.
Grain was the basis of the economy and large grain stores collected grain as tax. The civilisation was extensive, from the eastern foothills of the Himalayas, to Lothar on the Gujarat coast, and to Sutgagen Dor near the Iranian border. Some cities of the Indus valley culture have yet to be excavated. The Indus civilisation did not develop as a result of contact with other civilisations such as Sumer or Egypt but was an indigenous development growing out of earlier, local cultures.
We know little of the religion, social structure or politics of this early civilisation and we do not know the language, but seals have been found with what looks like a script inscribed on them. This has not been deciphered successfully and some scholars now question whether it is in fact a script, although this is contentious.
Religion in the Indus valley seems to have involved temple rituals and ritual bathing in the 'great bath' found at Mohenjo-Daro. There is some evidence of animal sacrifice at Kalibangan. A number of terracotta figurines have been found, perhaps goddess images, and a seal depicting a seated figure surrounded by animals that some scholars thought to be a prototype of the god Shiva. Others have disputed this, pointing out that it bears a close resemblance to Elamite seals depicting seated bulls.
One image, carved on soapstone steatite , depicts a figure battling with lions which is reminiscent of the Mesopotamian Gilgamesh myth. There may be continuities between the Indus Valley civilisation and later Hinduism as suggested by the apparent emphasis on ritual bathing, sacrifice, and goddess worship. But ritual purity, sacrifice and an emphasis on fertility are common to other ancient religions. There are two sources of knowledge about this ancient period - language and archaeology - and we can make two comments about them.
Firstly, the language of vedic culture was vedic Sanskrit, which is related to other languages in the Indo-European language group. This suggests that Indo-European speakers had a common linguistic origin known by scholars as Proto-Indo-European. Secondly, there does seem to be archaeological continuity in the subcontinent from the Neolithic period.
The history of this period is therefore complex. One of the key problems is that no horse remains have been found in the Indus Valley but in the Veda the horse sacrifice is central. The debate is ongoing.
An Investigation , Aziz Ansari states that one third of marriages in the United States between met through online dating services. Drones assemble in a bulb of warm air close or far from the apiary. A s Coca-Cola advertisement. Firstly, the language of vedic culture was vedic Sanskrit, which is related to other languages in the Indo-European language group. Sex and the Supremacy of Christ. On this day in , President Calvin Coolidge touches a button and lights up the first national Christmas tree to grace the White House grounds. Around the mids and in conjunction with the Women's Movement and the emergence of the birth control pill , a sexual revolution began.
If we take 'Vedic Period' to refer to the period when the Vedas were composed, we can say that early vedic religion centred around the sacrifice and sharing the sacrificial meal with each other and with the many gods devas. The term 'sacrifice' homa , yajna is not confined to offering animals but refers more widely to any offering into the sacred fire such as milk and clarified butter. Some of the vedic rituals were very elaborate and continue to the present day. Sacrifice was offered to different vedic gods devas who lived in different realms of a hierarchical universe divided into three broad realms: Earth contains the plant god Soma, the fire god Agni, and the god of priestly power, Brhaspati.
The Atmosphere contains the warrior Indra, the wind Vayu, the storm gods or Maruts and the terrible Rudra. The Sky contains the sky god Dyaus from the same root as Zeus , the Lord of cosmic law or rta Varuna, his friend the god of night Mitra, the nourisher Pushan, and the pervader Vishnu. This period, beginning from around the time of Buddha died c.
The famous Bhagavad Gita is part of the Mahabharata. The idea of dharma law, duty, truth which is central to Hinduism was expressed in a genre of texts known as Dharma Sutras and Shastras. The Dharma Sutras recognise three sources of dharma: The Laws of Manu adds 'what is pleasing to oneself'.
During this period the vedic fire sacrifice became minimised with the development of devotional worship puja to images of deities in temples. From this period we can recognise many elements in present day Hinduism, such as bhakti devotion and temple worship. This period saw the development of poetic literature. These texts were composed in Sanskrit, which became the most important element in a shared culture. From CE we have the rise of devotion bhakti to the major deities , particularly Vishnu, Shiva and Devi.
With the collapse of the Gupta empire, regional kingdoms developed which patronised different religions. For example, the Cholas in the South supported Shaivism. This period saw the development of the great regional temples such as Jagganatha in Puri in Orissa, the Shiva temple in Cidambaram in Tamilnadu, and the Shiva temple in Tanjavur, also in Tamilnadu.
All of these temples had a major deity installed there and were centres of religious and political power. During this time not only religious literature in Sanskrit developed but also in vernacular languages, particularly Tamil. Here poet-saints recorded their devotional sentiments. Most notable are the twelve Vaishnava Alvars 6th—9th centuries , including one famous female poet-saint called Andal, and the sixty-three Shaiva Nayanars 8th—10th centuries.
Subsequent key thinkers and teachers acharyas or gurus consolidated these teachings. They formulated new theologies, perpetuated by their own disciplic successions sampradaya. Shankara — travelled widely, defeating scholars of the unorthodox movements, Buddhism and Jainism, which around the turn of the millennium had established prominent seats of learning throughout India. Romance in early 18 th century America was all social capital, decorum, and familial oversight.
Dating did not yet exist in the modern sense; society instead favored a courtship model which almost entirely consisted of one long, parentally-controlled audition for marriage. Marriage during this time was less a public declaration of mutual affection and more an essential means of legally exchanging property between families.
Courtship was the ritual that would allow the families to evaluate potential matches and determine if the arrangement would be advantageous. Reputation was also an essential form of social currency that required intimate guarding. A marriage built solely on the forces of emotion and mutual affection was scorned and perceived as irresponsible. Rather, love was regarded as the product of a constructed arrangement, eventually achieved by couples with aligned resources and values. This tradition of parental oversight was legitimized by the law, which held that guardians were permitted and expected to organize the transition of their child into a legal marriage.
By the early 19 th century, romance had rapidly become the desired method of courtship. Art and philosophy began to reflect a new world view in which love was prescribed as the ideal foundation for a marriage, even taking precedent over c onsiderations of property. This new romantic character of courtship plainly took form in the forsaking of traditional highly formalized love letters in favor of letters with a more endearing and poetic tone.
But despite this move towards emotionally based relationships, the compatibility of matches was still strongly emphasized. During the courtship process, it was typical for the intended couples to divulge their perceived character flaws to ensure that a long-term commitment would be logical and feasible. Additionally, the many legal and social barriers surrounding divorce increased the pressure to ensure that a match was suitable.
Separation was often only granted on grounds of bigamy, impotence, or adultery. Women especially were impeded by the law, which still did not acknowledge them as capable of claiming possession of property or monetary assets.
As the 20 th century progressed, technological advances, such as the increasing prevalence of the automobile, provided youth with the opportunity for liberation from their parlors.